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New Vaccines

The New Vaccines Group, led by Professor Kim Mulholland, works across two distinct but closely-related sub-groups to develop, evaluate and enhance vaccination strategies worldwide:

1.    Clinical and Epidemiology; This group is involved in Surveillance for pneumococcal disease and carriage in Mongolia, evaluating the effectiveness of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to reduce rates of invasive disease, radiologic pneumonia, carriage, and the cost-effectiveness of vaccination.

2.    Immunology; One of the key questions the Vaccine Immunology group is addressing is the cellular basis of long-term immunity following pneumococcal and HPV vaccination, with a particular emphasis on B cell memory. Studies have been completed in Fiji with an ongoing clinical trial in Vietnam designed to answer this question. The laboratory evaluates pneumococcal vaccine immunogenicity using a range of WHO-recommended and internationally-standardised methodologies. It is one of the only groups worldwide with the capacity to evaluate pneumococcal vaccine immunogenicity as part of large clinical trials to all serotypes in the currently-available vaccines using WHO ELISA, multiplexed opsonophagocytosis and B cell assays.

The group research interests are in a variety of areas related to current and potential vaccines.  The vaccines include Pneumococcal Conjugate vaccines (PCV), Human Papilloma Virus Vaccines (HPV), Typhoid Conjugate Vaccines (TCV) and potential vaccines for Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

Group Leaders: 
Team Leaders: 
Group Members: 
Dr Kerryn Moore
Research Officer
Helen Thomson
Research Manager
Rachel Higgins
Research Assistant, Immunology
Beth Temple
Program Manager / Epidemiologist
Kathryn Bright
Clinical Coordinator - based in Vietnam
Jeremy Anderson
PhD student - Immunology
Mercy Thomas
PhD Student
Haset Samuel
Personal Assistant / Group Administrator
Dr Nick Fancourt
Honorary Research Fellow
Dr Sophie La Vincente
Honorary Research Fellow
Ms Anne Balloch
Honorary Research Fellow - Immunology
Hasindu Edirisinghe
Masters Student
Will Hughes
Masters Student
Michelle Oeum
Masters Student
Nadia Mazarakis
Volunteer, Immunology

PCV vaccines

•    2014-2022; Immunogenicity and NP carriage study on alternative PCV schedules building on existing trial. Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam

-    Few data are available to support the choice between the two currently available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), ten-valent PCV (PCV10) and 13-valent PCV (PCV13). Here the group report a head-to-head comparison of the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of PCV10 and PCV13.

•    2016-2021; Evaluation of the impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Mongolia

-    Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae precedes disease, is the source of pneumococcal community spread, and the mechanism for herd protection provided by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). There are few PCV impact studies in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in Asia. In 2016, Mongolia introduced the 13-valent PCV (PCV13) in a phased manner using a 2 + 1 schedule, with catch-up. We aimed to assess the impact of PCV13 introduction on nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage and density in children in Mongolia.

•    2018-2021; Evaluation of PCV schedules in a naive population in Vietnam,  Nha Trang, Vietnam
-    This study showed the impact of PCV13 introduction with and without CC in Nha Trang, Vietnam, a country that has not yet introduced PCV, through a dynamic transmission model. We modelled the impact on carriage and invasive pneumococcal disease

•    2018-2022: Evaluation of the impact of childhood 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction on adult pneumonia and community carriage in four districts of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

-    This study describe the epidemiology of hospitalized children aged 2-59 months with pneumonia, enrolled into a surveillance program in the period prior to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) introduction, in Mongolia.

•    2019-2021: Pneumococcal vaccines and long-term protection

HPV vaccines 

•    2018-2019 Human papillomavirus (HPV) detection rates and immunogenicity in women who received one dose of quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Mongolia

-    Emerging observational evidence suggests a single-dose of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine may be protective against vaccine-targeted HPV infection and associated cervical dysplasia. We aimed to demonstrate whether a single dose of quadrivalent HPV (4vHPV) vaccine was immunogenic and reduced HPV detection rates in young women in Mongolia. We also assessed knowledge and attitudes regarding HPV and the HPV vaccine.

•    2018-2020; HPV detection in young women 5 years following the 4-valent HPV vaccine in Mongolia

-    This is the first study measures early vaccine effectiveness and assess knowledge and attitudes of young women in Mongolia in relation to the human papillomavirus (HPV), the vaccine and cervical cancer

•    2018-2021; Epidemiological, economic and sociological evidence to inform policy-making about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine introduction in India and Ethiopia

-    This study is to determine whether HPV prevalence and genotype profile in young women can be used to establish estimates of cervical cancer burden in different states in India and Ethiopia and to estimate the effectiveness and potential impact of HPV vaccine.  Using data on HPV risk factors to enable estimates of the cancer burden based on models developed in India and adapted to Ethiopia.

•    2016-2020; Epidemiological features, national burden of several HPV-related diseases and estimation of cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccines in Vietnam


•    2020-2021: Estimating the economic burden of acute respiratory illness in infants in Vietnam: a cohort study

•    2018-2020: Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on RSV and Influenza Infections in Mongolia

  • University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. 
  • Menzies Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia 
  • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK
  • Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan 
  • Mongolian Ministry of Health
  • Fiji Ministry of Health and Medical Services 
  • Pasteur Institute, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam 
  • Armauer Hansen Research Institute (AHRI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 
  • WHO Western Pacific Regional Office
  • Doherty Institute, Melbourne