You are here


  • ​​​​​​Information sheet: About the KICS Study
  • Final report of the KICS pilot study (2010)
  • KiCS final report (2018)
  • Draft manual of KiCS measures and methodologies (2018)
  • Example community profile
  • Goldfeld, S., G. Woolcock, I. Katz, R. Tanton, S. Brinkman, E. O’Connor, T. Mathews and B. Giles-Corti (2015). "Neighbourhood Effects Influencing Early Childhood Development: Conceptual Model and Trial Measurement Methodologies from the Kids in Communities Study." Social Indicators Research 120(1): 197-212.
  • Tanton, R., M. Dare, S. Brinkman, B.-G. Corti, I. Katz, G. Woolcock and S. Goldfeld (2015). "Identifying off-diagonal communities using the Australian Early Development Census results." Social Indicators Research: 1-16.
  • Goldfeld, S., K. Villanueva, R. Tanton, I. Katz, S. Brinkman, G. Woolcock and B. Giles-Corti (2017). "Kids in Communities Study (KiCS) study protocol: a cross-sectional mixed-methods approach to measuring community-level factors influencing early child development in Australia." BMJ Open 7(3).
  • Goldfeld, S. and K. Villanueva (2017). "The Kids in Communities Study: what is it about where you live that makes a difference to children's development?" Early Childhood Matters: Moving towards scale: advancing early childhood development (126): 100.

Foundational Community Factors (FCFs) for Early Childhood Development

From the ARC-funded project, the Australian Government Department of Social Services (DSS) provided further funding to develop evidence-based draft community-level Foundational Community Factors (FCFs) for early childhood development (ECD). These are factors that lay the foundations of a good community for young children.

KiCS final report

The KiCS report has a list of evidence-based promising (draft) foundational community factors (FCFs) for early childhood development (ECD), based on findings from KiCS. The executive summary is here. Get the KiCS report here to find out more. 

KiCS community profile

The KiCS community profile is an example of the short reports distrivuted to each community involved in KiCS. The profile contains specific information and findings for the community.

KiCS draft community manual

Communities are well placed to improve the health and development of local children - the ‘how-to’ of collecting the FCFs are outlined in a draft manual. It provides suggestions on measures and methods to collect a subset of the FCFs locally. We are interested in learning more about whether communities can use this manual for place-based efforts.

What’s in this manual?
  • List of thirteen Foundational Community Factors (FCFs), and where to get started with measuring the FCFs
  • Practical information about how to collect the FCFs (methods and measures)
Who is this manual for?

Communities seeking to improve the health and development of local children can collect local data on FCFs to better understand what may potentially make a difference to children’s development in their community. This manual is designed for local community organisations wanting to measure local community-level factors for early childhood:

  • local government staff e.g. early years planners
  • service providers
  • community development staff
  • local researchers.
Why use this manual?

The FCFs are based on evidence from KiCS, which means that critical points of intervention for creating better environments for children’s health and wellbeing are informed by research. This means the FCFs are based on evidence from communities themselves, and are specific and measurable at the local level. Use this manual to:

  • Identify potential points of intervention for your community and prioritise key areas
  • Get a clearer picture of its community and how the community is tracking in areas related to ECD
Learn more and partner with us

For community-level FCFs to be implemented and monitored over time, it is vital to understand how communities can best measure the FCFs locally. Testing the measurement of this manual is crucial to identify methods that do and do not work in the local context. Working with communities to design the best approach to local implementation of these FCFs is of high importance if the manual is to be sustainable long-term. If you’re interested in learning more and/or testing the manual in your community, please contact the KiCS team: