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Central obesity and 10-year BMI trajectories predict poor hearing in adults - patterns already emerging by 11-12 years.

Decreasing MVPA by 15 minutes had larger impacts on body composition than increasing MVPA by 15 minutes; body composition changes were not symmetrical.

Cross-generational concordance across all measures of leanness and adiposity is already evident by late childhood.

Inflammation mediated associations between obesity and retinal venules, but not arterioles from mid-childhood, with higher mediation effects observed in adults.

Overweight and obesity from early childhood onward were strongly associated with higher cardiometabolic risk at 11 to 12 years of age.

This paper demonstrates the application of compositional data analysis to show that, among adults, greater body mass is associated with stronger bones, but at every level of body mass, stronger bones are associated with body compositions with higher proportions of fat-free mass and lower proportions of truncal and non-truncal fat.

MVPA is 2 to 6 times as potent as sleep or sedentary time for children’s health: a 0.1SD decrease in adiposity is associated with 52 minutes more sleep or 56 minutes less sitting, which is equivalent to just 17 minutes more MVPA.