The research of the Infectious Diseases Group focuses on improving the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children. It comprises both clinical and laboratory-based research studies. The clinical research aspect includes randomised controlled trials, observational studies and systematic reviews of best practice. Our laboratory research encompasses basic and applied medical microbiology, as well as immunological studies to explore the mechanisms by which pathogens cause disease and their interaction with the host immune response.
We have a particular interest in infections that are important to child health worldwide such as tuberculosis and other respiratory infections, diarrhoeal illnesses and neonatal sepsis. A key focus of our current work is the investigation of the heterologous effects of BCG vaccination. The team are investigating the hypothesis that the immunomodulatory effects of BCG influence the development of infant immunity to enhance protection against infections and reduce susceptibility to allergic disease.
MIS BAIR - BCG for allergy and infection reduction study
Clinical infectious diseases
Research is conducted in close collaboration with the clinical infections diseases team at The Royal Children’s Hospital. We have a large number of ongoing projects on a wide range of topics including the following.
- VANC trial: RCT of continuous versus intermittent dosing of vancomycin in neonates
- Antibiotic penetration of CSF
- Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in children
- Candida study
- Stethocloud project
Heterologous effects of vaccines
Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine is given to over 120 of the 130 million babies born worldwide each year with the aim of providing protection against tuberculosis (TB). It is becoming clear that neonatal BCG vaccination has an additional substantial effect on all-cause infant mortality in high-mortality settings by providing ‘heterologous’ or ‘non-specific’ protection against other infections. It is believed this results from the well-established powerful immunomodulatory effects of BCG that have been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. These effects and the ability of BCG to train the developing immune system may also lead to reduced susceptibility to allergic disease.
Understanding how BCG vaccination enhances the developing immune system is important because:
- Harnessing the beneficial immunomodulatory effects of BCG could significantly reduce neonatal and infant morbidity and mortality worldwide.
Understanding the beneficial non-TB-related effects of BCG is critical for global BCG vaccine policy and the development of new TB vaccines
- Changes in BCG vaccine policy may result in the loss of the beneficial heterologous effects of BCG with a consequent detrimental effect on morbidity and mortality. This includes:
- replacing BCG with a more specific vaccine in high TB prevalence countries
- removing BCG from the standard schedule in emerging economies with diminishing rates of TB.
- A better understanding of BCG’s heterologous effects will remain relevant in the era of novel TB vaccines as many of the vaccines in development are designed to boost a birth dose of BCG vaccine.
The MIS BAIR randomised controlled trial
The Melbourne Infant Study: BCG for Allergy and Infection Reduction (MIS BAIR) is an Australian NHMRC-funded randomised controlled trial (RCT) that will assess the effect of neonatal BCG vaccination on clinical allergy and infection outcomes in infants in Melbourne. Over 1400 infants are being randomised to BCG or no BCG at birth. Infants will be followed up for one-year using three monthly online questionnaires to collect data from parents on allergic, infection and other outcomes. At one year of age, all infants will undergo testing to determine the prevalence of allergy to food and other allergens. The study also includes the collection of blood and other biosamples, providing a unique opportunity to rigorously test the hypothesis that neonatal BCG vaccination has lasting heterologous effects on infant immunity.
There has been a dramatic rise in allergic disease worldwide since the 1980s. Asthma rates increased first, followed by eczema, allergic rhinitis and, more recently, food allergy - especially in infants and young children. In Australia, the prevalence of allergic disease is particularly high: up to 30% of children are affected, and eczema and asthma are among the most common chronic diseases of childhood. Preventing allergic disease by an immunomodulatory intervention early in life would be a major advance with significant implications for individual health and public health resources. BCG vaccination is a potential intervention with an established safety profile. The heterologous effects of BCG on innate immunity and the cellular immune response could prime host immunity away from an allergic pathway. Observational data and one small RCT suggest that BCG vaccination at birth leads to a substantial reduction in allergic disease - however, there is an absence of level 1 evidence.
The aim of this study is to determine the influence of BCG at birth on infant immunity and the development of allergy by comparing infants given BCG at birth with those not given BCG to determine if BCG vaccination leads to a reduction in the following measures of allergy in the first 12 months of life:
- Food sensitisation (skin prick test)
- Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)
- Challenge-proven food allergy
- Hospital admissions for respiratory illnesses.
Data are emerging to account for BCG’s heterologous effects, including studies that show BCG modulates innate immunity through epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes. However, this has never been explored in the context of neonatal BCG vaccination, the main target population for BCG use worldwide.
A recent JAMA editorial lamented the absence of “prospective studies designed to explore the immunological mechanisms underlying the apparent reduction in infection syndromes not targeted by the administered vaccine”. Our unique cohort of BCG vaccinated and BCG naïve infants who are being followed up longitudinally from birth in the MIS BAIR study provides us with the unparalleled opportunity to investigate the immunological and molecular mechanisms whereby BCG mediates beneficial heterologous protective immunity.
To this end, in addition to the clinical allergy and infection outcomes, we are collecting a large number of biosamples, for immunological and studies. These include the following:
- cord blood
- venous blood at seven days, six months and one year of age
- stool samples daily for the first seven days of life for microbiome analyses
- respiratory samples for viral and microbiome analyses.
The BabyBAIR study
In this observational study we are investigating how BCG vaccination modifies the immune response to subsequent (in vitro) challenge with viral and bacterial pathogens unrelated to TB in healthy children and young adults.
ELVIS (Early Life Vaccine Immunity Study)
This is a randomised controlled trial to determine the heterologous effects of BCG and Hepatitis B vaccination at birth on neonatal immune responses. It is designed to investigate the possible interaction between these two vaccines on the innate and adaptive immune response in the first 7 days of life.
The study will include 200 newborn babies who require BCG vaccination. They will be randomised to one of four groups shortly after birth, which will determine which birth dose vaccines they will receive:
- Group 1 BCG vaccine
- Group 2 BCG vaccine and Hepatitis B vaccine
- Group 3 Hepatitis B vaccine at birth
- Group 4 No birth vaccines
Seven days post-randomisation they will have venous blood collected for analysis and subsequently receive any vaccines they still require. In addition to this blood sample, stool samples will be collected daily for the first seven days of life and nose swabs will be collected at randomisation and the seven-day visit for microbiome analysis.
There are approximately 1.3 million new cases of active TB every year in individuals under 15 years of age worldwide, and TB claims the lives of over half a million children annually. The prevalence of TB is increasing worldwide and XDR-TB now poses an additional threat. One third of the world’s population is infected with TB and there are nine million new cases of active TB disease every year. Recent data show that children account for an increasing proportion of cases of TB in both developed and developing countries and the disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide.
The research and development targets of WHO’s Global Plan to Stop TB include the need for new diagnostics, new drugs and new vaccines. Our TB research focuses on creating new techniques for the diagnosis of childhood TB, and understanding the immune response and adverse events of BCG (the current TB vaccine). We are have a number of clinical and epidemiological projects.
Biomarkers for immunodiagnosis and monitoring of TB
We were amongst the first researchers to investigate the performance of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) in children. Our studies highlight that compared to adults, in children there is a substantially higher rate of discordance with the tuberculin skin test (TST) – suggesting diminished sensitivity – and a higher rate of indeterminate assays. The findings, subsequently confirmed by other groups worldwide, have important implications for the diagnosis and clinical management of children with suspected TB.
We have subsequently used detailed immunological analyses (using whole blood assays with TB-specific peptides and multi-colour flow cytometry and bead-based multiplex (Luminex XMAP) cytokine assays) to search for more accurate biomarkers for the diagnosis of TB in children.
As a result of our work over the last seven years, we have identified novel characteristic Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific cytokine responses (biomarkers) in blood that have the potential to improve the immune-based diagnosis of TB and, critically, simultaneously to distinguish between LTBI and active TB.
Our current studies assess the validity of these biomarkers, TST and IGRA in adults and children in a low TB prevalence setting and children in a high TB prevalence setting (Peru project).
IDOCT (Immuno-Diagnosis of Childhood Tuberculosis)
This NHMRC funded study recruited 149 children and found a number of novel cytokine responses that can distinguish between TB-uninfected and TB-infected children. In addition, some of these cytokines have the ability to distinguish between latent TB infection and active TB.
Further participants are currently being recruited to validate these findings in children in Melbourne children. Also, the TB biomarkers identified in this project are currently undergoing further investigation in two further studies (VIDA and the Peru project) in adults and children. These studies will assess the performance of the biomarkers in different age-groups and settings (low and high TB prevalence), a key step in the development of a novel TB test for clinical use.
VIDA (Validation of ImmunoDiagnostic markers in Adults)
In this study we are further evaluating and validationg the novel biomarkers discovered in the IDOCT study in a Melbourne adult population. This validation study will establish the performance of the biomarkers in adults, a key step in the development of a novel TB test with sufficiently high sensitivity and specificity for use in the clinical setting.
Peru childhood TB diagnosis project
In collaboration with our colleagues in Lima, Peru, we are testing novel biomarkers in children in a high TB prevalence setting to determine their precise sensitivity and specificity. This validation is a critical step in the development of a new generation of low cost, point-of-care immunodiagnostic assays for TB. In this prospective cohort study, we are enrolling 200 children aged 0-14 years who are household contacts of adult TB patients and thus at high risk of latent TB infection or TB disease.
Immune response to BCG
We have undertaken a number of studies investigating the immune response to BCG immunisation, and in particular the influence of vaccine strain and age of administration (birth vs 2 months, and child vs adult). These studies have used short and long term whole blood assays with a variety of mycobacterial antigens followed by analysis using multi-colour flow cytometry and bead-based multiplex (xMAP Luminex) cytokine assays. We have published a number of studies describing the role of polyfunctional T cells and CD107-expressing T cells in the immune response to BCG vaccination. A paper currently under review reports the result of our recent study that highlights the importance of NK cells and CD4-CD8- ‘double negative’ T cells in the immune response to BCG.
- Further studies will be undertaken as part of the MIS BAIR and BabyBAIR studies
- Systematic review of adverse effects of BCG
Epidemiology of childhood TB in Victoria
- Epidemiology of active TB in Victoria
- Study of the management of child contacts of adults with TB in Victoria
E. coli diarrhoeal disease research
Understanding how Escherichia coli causes diarrhoea
We are studying E. coli to discover how certain types are able to cause diarrhoea and other diseases. The aim of this research is to develop tools that will allow us to distinguish pathogenic from harmless E. coli varieties and to develop interventions to treat and prevent infections with these bacteria.
Prevention of infections with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
Enterotoxin-producing strains of E. coli are an important cause of diarrhoea and death in children in developing countries, and the commonest cause of travellers' diarrhoea worldwide. As no effective vaccines are available for these infections, we are investigating a novel technique for vaccine delivery to develop one. We are also working on strategies to prevent travellers' diarrhoea that do not require immunisation.
- Antimicrobial Effects of Antipyretics. 2017
- Evidence of Microvascular Changes in the Retina following Kawasaki Disease. 2017
- Increased aortic intima-media thickness following Kawasaki disease. 2017
- Mycobacteria-specific cytokine responses as correlates of treatment response in active and latent tuberculosis. 2017
- QUESTION 1: What is the risk of a repeat reaction to amoxicillin or a cephalosporin in children with a history of a non-immediate reaction to amoxicillin? 2017
- Antibiotic duration and timing of the switch from intravenous to oral route for bacterial infections in children: systematic review and guidelines. 2016
- Brachial Plexus Palsy in Young Infants Harboring Osteomyelitis of the Humerus - Case Report and Review of the Literature. 2016
- Comparable CD4 and CD8 T cell responses and cytokine release after at-birth and delayed BCG immunisation in infants born in Australia. 2016
- Congenital Tuberculosis Complicated by Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis. 2016
- Early gut colonization by Bifidobacterium breve and B. catenulatum differentially modulates eczema risk in children at high risk of developing allergic disease. 2016
- Evolution of atypical enteropathogenic E. coli by repeated acquisition of LEE pathogenicity island variants. 2016
- Harnessing the beneficial heterologous effects of vaccination. 2016
- Kawasaki disease and cardiovascular risk: a comprehensive review of subclinical vascular changes in the longer term. 2016
- Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Disease in Children - Epidemiology, Diagnosis & Management at a Tertiary Center. 2016
- QUESTION 1: Are household contacts of patients with invasive group A streptococcal disease at higher risk of secondary infection? 2016
- Structural Determinants Defining the Allosteric Inhibition of an Essential Antibiotic Target. 2016
- The Burden of Cryptosporidium Diarrheal Disease among Children < 24 Months of Age in Moderate/High Mortality Regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, Utilizing Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS). 2016
- Toxic shock syndrome in Australian children. 2016
- Voriconazole dosing and therapeutic drug monitoring in children: experience from a paediatric tertiary care centre. 2016
- Anti-infective use in children and pregnancy: current deficiencies and future challenges. 2015
- ASO titer or not? When to use streptococcal serology: a guide for clinicians. 2015
- Australia-wide point prevalence survey of antimicrobial prescribing in neonatal units: how much and how good? 2015
- BCG-associated heterologous immunity, a historical perspective: experimental models and immunological mechanisms. 2015
- BCG-associated heterologous immunity, a historical perspective: intervention studies in animal models of infectious diseases. 2015
- BCG-associated heterologous immunity, a historical perspective: intervention studies in animal models of infectious diseases. 2015
- Complementary and alternative medicine use among paediatric emergency department patients. 2015
- Control of acid resistance pathways of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strain EDL933 by PsrB, a prophage-encoded AraC-like regulator. 2015
- Cytokines for monitoring anti-tuberculous therapy: A systematic review. 2015
- Diagnostic Tests for Childhood Tuberculosis: Past Imperfect, Present Tense and Future Perfect? 2015
- Evolutionary adaptation of an AraC-like regulatory protein in Citrobacter rodentium and Escherichia species. 2015
- Interferon gamma release assays for monitoring the response to treatment for tuberculosis: A systematic review. 2015
- Monitoring Central Venous Catheter Resistance to Predict Imminent Occlusion: A Prospective Pilot Study. 2015
- Mycobacteria-Specific Cytokine Responses Detect Tuberculosis Infection and Distinguish Latent from Active Tuberculosis. 2015
- Plasma vascular endothelial growth factor A and placental growth factor: novel biomarkers of pulmonary hypertension in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. 2015
- Posaconazole: promising but problematic in practice in pediatric patients. 2015
- Serum IP-10 in the diagnosis of latent and active tuberculosis. 2015
- Site of fluorescent label modifies interaction of melittin with live cells and model membranes. 2015
- Streptococcal Serology: Secrets for the Specialist. 2015
- The impact of anti-tuberculous antibiotics and corticosteroids on cytokine production in QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube assays. 2015
- The management of non-tuberculous cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children: Asystematic review and meta-analysis. 2015
- Effectiveness of clindamycin and intravenous immunoglobulin, and risk of disease in contacts, in invasive group a streptococcal infections. 2014
- Long-term persistence of immunity and B-cell memory following Haemophilus influenzae type B conjugate vaccination in early childhood and response to booster. 2014
- Novel concepts in the epidemiology, diagnosis and prevention of childhood tuberculosis. 2014
- Pristinamycin: old drug, new tricks? 2014
- Question 2: which infants with congenital cytomegalovirus infection benefit from antiviral therapy? 2014
- Streptococcal superantigens: categorization and clinical associations. 2014
- Ureaplasma--Are you sitting comfortably? 2014
- A type III effector antagonizes death receptor signalling during bacterial gut infection 2013
- Alteration of the thymic T cell repertoire by rotavirus infection is associated with delayed type 1 diabetes development in non-obese diabetic mice. 2013
- Antibiotic Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteremia in Pediatric Oncology Patients - Risk Factors and Outcome. 2013
- Antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia in pediatric oncology patients--risk factors and outcomes. 2013
- Assembly of the type II secretion system such as found in Vibriocholerae depends on the novel Pilotin AspS. 2013
- Assembly of the Type II Secretion System such as Foundin Vibrio cholerae Depends on the Novel Pilotin AspS 2013
- Burden and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infants and young children in developing countries (the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, GEMS): a prospective, case-control study. 2013
- Carriage-associated Streptocccus pneumoniae serotype 1 in Brussels, Belgium. 2013
- Central line-associated bloodstream infection in children: an update on treatment. 2013
- Characterization of the ospZ Promoter in Shigella flexneri and Its Regulation by VirB and H-NS 2013
- Contribution of Secretory Antibodies to Intestinal Mucosal Immunity against Helicobacter pylori 2013
- Control of Bacterial Virulence by the RalR Regulator of the Rabbit-Specific Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain E22. 2013
- Disarming bacterial virulence through chemical inhibition of the DNA binding domain of an AraC-like transcriptional activator protein. 2013
- Ethanol Lock Therapy in Pediatric Hematology and Oncology 2013
- Formal Infectious Diseases Consultations at a Tertiary Pediatric Hospital: A 14 Year Review 2013
- Heterologous ("nonspecific") and sex-differential effects of vaccines: epidemiology, clinical trials, and emerging immunologic mechanisms. 2013
- Infants born in Australia to mothers from countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis: to BCG or not to BCG? 2013
- Inhibition of Streptococcus pneumoniae adherence to human epithelial cells in vitro by the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. 2013
- Interferon-? release assays for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children. 2013
- Maculatin 1.1 Disrupts Staphylococcus aureus Lipid Membranes via a Pore Mechanism 2013
- Masters, marionettes and modulators: intersection of pathogen virulence factors and mammalian death receptor signaling 2013
- Molecular markers for the study of streptococcal epidemiology. 2013
- Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in two alpacas. 2013
- Nasopharyngeal microbial interactions in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. 2013
- Neonatal Vancomycin Continuous Infusions: Still a Confusion? 2013
- Non-specific effect of Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine on routine immunisations 2013
- Otitis media among high-risk populations: can probiotics inhibit Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation and the risk of disease? 2013
- Prednisolone added to intravenous immunoglobulin treatment improves outcome in children with severe Kawasaki disease. 2013
- Question 1: what are the options for treating latent TB infection in children? 2013
- RegR virulence regulon of rabbit-specific enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain E22. 2013
- Reply: Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine: innate immunity and nonspecific effects. 2013
- Rotavirus acceleration of murine type 1 diabetes is associated with a T helper 1-dependent specific serum antibody response and virus effects in regional lymph nodes. 2013
- Sleep and infection: no snooze, you lose? 2013
- Successful Treatment of Refractory Immune Thrombocytopenia With Rituximab in a 10-Week-Old Infant 2013
- Susceptibility to acute rheumatic fever: differential expression of genes involved in cytotoxicity, chemotaxis and apoptosis 2013
- The contribution of non-conventional T cells and NK cells in the mycobacterial-specific IFN? response in Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-immunized infants. 2013
- The contribution of non-conventional T cells and NK cells in the mycobacterial-specific ifngamma response in Bacille Calmette-Guerin (bcg)-immunized infants 2013
- To x-ray or not to x-ray? Screening asymptomatic children for pulmonary TB: a retrospective audit. 2013
- Update on Kawasaki disease: epidemiology, aetiology and pathogenesis. 2013
- Ureaplasma meningitis and subdural collections in a neonate. 2013
- A Comparative Analysis of Polyfunctional T Cells and Secreted Cytokines Induced by Bacille Calmette-Guerin Immunisation in Children and Adults 2012
- A totally synthetic lipopeptide-based self-adjuvanting vaccine induces neutralizing antibodies against heat-stable enterotoxin from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli 2012
- Adenovirus: An Overview for Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists 2012
- B Cell Memory to a Serogroup C Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Childhood and Response to Booster: Little Association with Serum IgG Antibody 2012
- Characterization of novel phages isolated in coagulase-negative staphylococci reveals evolutionary relationships with Staphylococcus aureus phages. 2012
- Community-acquired neonatal and infant sepsis in developing countries: efficacy of WHO's currently recommended antibiotics--systematic review and meta-analysis. 2012
- Diagnostic Microbiologic Methods in the GEMS-1 Case/Control Study. 2012
- Discovery of an archetypal protein transport system in bacterial outer membranes 2012
- DO FEBRILE CONVULSIONS CAUSE CSF PLEOCYTOSIS? 2012
- Effect of pneumococcal vaccination on nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus in Fijian children. 2012
- Factors that explain excretion of enteric pathogens by persons without diarrhea. 2012
- Genome-Wide Analysis of the Pho Regulon in a pstCA Mutant of Citrobacter rodentium 2012
- Group A Streptococcus Meningitis in Children. 2012
- Invasive group a streptococcal disease: epidemiology, pathogenesis and management. 2012
- Involvement of PatE, a Prophage-Encoded AraC-Like Regulator, in the Transcriptional Activation of Acid Resistance Pathways ofEnterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Strain EDL933 2012
- Involvement of PatE, a Prophage-Encoded AraC-Like Regulator, in the Transcriptional Activation of Acid Resistance Pathways of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Strain EDL933. 2012
- Laboratory diagnostic challenges in case/control studies of diarrhea in developing countries. 2012
- Meningitis in children in Fiji: etiology, epidemiology, and neurological sequelae. 2012
- Protecting against Pneumococcal Disease: Critical Interactions between Probiotics and the Airway Microbiome. 2012
- Streptococcal skin infection and rheumatic heart disease. 2012
- The Role of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin in Staphylococcus aureus Musculoskeletal Infections in Children 2012
- The type II secretion system and its ubiquitous lipoprotein substrate, SslE, are required for biofilm formation and virulence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. 2012
- Web-Based Recruiting for Health Research Using a Social Networking Site: An Exploratory Study 2012
- Absence of interferon-gamma release assay conversion following tuberculin skin testing. 2011
- Adolescent and young adult HPV vaccination in Australia: Achievements and challenges 2011
- Antimicrobial resistance in group B streptococcus: the Australian experience 2011
- Assessment of first sexual intercourse in young women with a history of childhood sexual abuse 2011
- Autogenous Transcriptional Regulation of the regA Gene, Encoding an AraC-Like, Essential Virulence Regulator in Citrobacter rodentium 2011
- Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Australia 2011
- Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2011
- Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in community-based HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Sydney, Australia 2011
- Clearance of Human Papillomavirus in Women Treated for Cervical Dysplasia 2011
- Comparison of the INNO-LiPA and PapType Assays for Detection of Human Papillomavirus in Archival Vulva Dysplasia and/or Neoplasia Tissue Biopsy Specimens 2011
- Comparison of Two Mycoplasma genitalium Real-Time PCR Detection Methodologies 2011
- Control of bacterial virulence by AraC-like regulators that respond to chemical signals 2011
- Distribution of human papillomavirus genotypes in archival cervical tissue from women with cervical cancer in urban Sri Lanka 2011
- Fimbrial adhesins produced by atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains 2011
- HOW COMMON IS CO-EXISTING MENINGITIS IN INFANTS WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTION? 2011
- Human papillomavirus genotype prevalence in cervical biopsies from women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer in Fiji 2011
- Human papillomavirus in adolescents: Lessons learned from decades of evaluation. 2011
- Human papillomavirus prevalence among indigenous and non-indigenous Australian women prior to a national HPV vaccination program 2011
- Human papillomavirus vaccination: where to now? 2011
- Laboratory-based diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia: state of the art and unmet needs 2011
- Low Perceived Risk and High HIV Prevalence Among a Predominantly African American Population Participating in Philadelphia's Rapid HIV Testing Program 2011
- Multilocus Sequence Typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae by Use of Mass Spectrometry. 2011
- Mycobacterium marinum infection 2011
- Oral Ivermectin for the Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis 2011
- Phasevarion Mediated Epigenetic Gene Regulation in Helicobacter pylori 2011
- Prenatal administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus has no effect on the diversity of the early infant gut microbiota 2011
- Prevention of neonatal group B streptococcus disease in the 21st century. 2011
- Randomized control trials using a tablet formulation of hyperimmune bovine colostrum to prevent diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in volunteers 2011
- Recurrent apnoea post immunisation: Informing re-immunisation policy 2011
- Science that "knows" and science that "asks". 2011
- Technical Variability Is Greater than Biological Variability in a Microarray Experiment but Both Are Outweighed by Changes Induced by Stimulation 2011
- The age-related risk of co-existing meningitis in children with urinary tract infection 2011
- The influence of BCG vaccine strain on the immune response against tuberculosis: a randomised trial 2011
- The placebo mystique: Implications for clinical trial methodology 2011
- The ProPrems trial: investigating the effects of probiotics on late onset sepsis in very preterm infants 2011
- The role of micro-organisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) in the pathogenesis of breast pain and infection in lactating women: study protocol 2011
- To TST or not to TST: Is tuberculin skin testing necessary before BCG immunisation in children? 2011
- Tuberculous dactylitis-an easily missed diagnosis 2011
- Variation in erythromycin and clindamycin resistance patterns between New Zealand and Australian group B streptococcus isolates 2011
- What's bugging you? An update on the treatment of head lice infestation 2011
- [Discussion: dental care for the people: dentists' answer to the mounting public criticism]. 1975
- Centre of Research Excellence on Tuberculosis Control: From Discovery to Public Health Practice and Policy
- Prof Tobi Kollman, Director of Flow Cytometry Facility, Child & Family Research Institute; Division of Infectious and Immunological Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia (UBC) and British Columbia's Children's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada.
- Prof Mihai Netea, Professor of Experimental Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, The Netherlands